Uzbekistan is officially the Republic of Uzbekistan, a landlocked country in Central Asia. It is surrounded by five countries: Kazakhstan to the north; Kyrgyzstan in the Northeast; Tajikistan in the southeast; Autonomous Republic of Afghanistan, Turkmenistan in the south and Karakal pakstan in the southwest. With Liechtenstein, it is one of two countries. Its capital and largest city is Tashkent. Uzbekistan is a Central Asian country and former Soviet republic. It is famous for its mosques, tombs and other sites connected to the Silk Road, an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean. Samarkand, a major city along this route, is a milestone in Islamic architecture. Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December 1991. However, It opposed reunification and withdrew from the CIS Collective Security Agreement in 1999. Since then, Uzbekistan has participated in the CIS peacekeeping force and UN-organized groups in Tajikistan. Help resolve the conflict in Tajikistan and Afghanistan, both of which are seen as a threat to its own stability.
Formerly near Washington (which provided half a billion dollars in aid to Uzbekistan in 2004, a quarter of its military budget), the Uzbek government has recently banned the use of a US military base in Karsh-Kanabat for air operations in neighboring Afghanistan. Uzbekistan has been a staunch supporter of US efforts against global terrorism and has joined alliances in dealing with both Afghanistan and Iraq. Relations between Uzbekistan and the United States began to deteriorate after the so-called "color revolutions" in Georgia and Ukraine (and to a lesser extent Kyrgyzstan). That relationship deteriorated further when the United States joined the call for an independent international inquiry into the bloodshed in Antigone. And President Islam Karimov changed the country's political alignment to bring it closer to Russia and China. Uzbekistan has a rich and diverse natural environment. However, decades of questionable Soviet policies in pursuit of higher cotton production have resulted in a catastrophic situation, with the agricultural industry being the main contributor to both air and water pollution and destruction in the country. Uzbekistan is the seventh largest gold miner in the world, mining 80 tonnes of gold annually. Uzbekistan's copper deposits are tenth in the world and uranium deposits are twelfth. The country's uranium production is ranked seventh in the world. Uzbek National Gas Company Uzbek Neft egas, 60 to 70 billion cubic meters (2.1–2. It ranks 11th in the world in natural gas production with an annual production of 5 trillion cubic feet). The country has significant oil and gas reserves: Uzbekistan has 194 hydrocarbon deposits, including 98 condenser and natural gas deposits and 96 gas reservoirs.