04/03/2012 Computer - Multimedia Classes

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Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots [2] and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.[3][4]The concept and creation of machines that could operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century.[5] Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as we continue to research, design, and build new robots that serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, exploring shipwrecks, and mines.Contents  [hide]     1 Etymology    2 History    3 Components        3.1 Power source        3.2 Actuation        3.3 Sensing        3.4 Manipulation        3.5 Locomotion        3.6 Environmental interaction and navigation        3.7 Human-robot interaction    4 Control        4.1 Autonomy levels    5 Robotics research        5.1 Dynamics and kinematics    6 Education and training        6.1 Career training        6.2 Certification        6.3 Summer robotics camp    7 Employment        7.1 Effects on unemployment    8 See also    9 Notes    10 Bibliography    11 Further reading    12 External links[edit]EtymologyThe word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel apek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum 's Universal Robots), which premiered in 1921.[6]According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar! ", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov was unaware that he was coining the term; since the science and technology of electrical devices iselectronics, he assumed robotics already referred to the science and technology of robots. In some of Asimov 's other works, he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround (Astounding Science Fiction, March 1942).[7][8] However, the original publication of "Liar! " predates that of "Runaround " by five months, so the former is generally cited as the word 's origin.[edit]HistoryMain article: History of robotsSee also: RobotA scene from Karel apek 's 1920 playR.U.R., showing three robotsStories of artificial helpers and companions and attempts to create them have a long history.The word robot was introduced to the public by the Czech writer Karel apek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum 's Universal Robots), published in 1920.[6] The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots creatures who can be mistaken for humans – though they are closer to the modern ideas ofandroids. Karel apek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef apek as its actual originator.[6]

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